During Better Block Akron, we created a bocce court in one lane of an expansive street, both to slow traffic and give attendees an activity to engage in while enjoying the public space. The court also worked as a barrier between pedestrians and the street, and provided an all-ages outlet for play; adults, adolescents, and seniors were holding bocce tournaments, and children were playing in the sand and attempting to juggle the balls.
The court was created with $200 and borrowed materials. If you’d like to create bocce court in your neighborhood, check out our recipe below. You can download a high-res PDF here.
The Better Block team was recently awarded a Knight Cities grant to convert excess housing stock in Akron, OH into a vibrant community center for the city’s thriving refugee committee. After multiple trips to survey the neighborhood and search for the perfect space, the team found their home and is beginning plans for its transformation.
The project, dubbed “The Exchange House,” will address multiple issues faced by the City of Akron today, including population declines, large numbers of residential vacancies, and a lowered tax base to maintain existing infrastructure. The project combats these trends by converting a vacant house in the North Hill neighborhood into a cultural hostel and gathering space. It works to exemplify the benefits of shared housing while reducing the negative side effects experienced in rapidly transforming areas.
While much of the population is declining, a vibrant refugee community exists in the North Hill neighborhood, which presents an opportunity to build and ascend through the culture that is unique to the neighborhood. The Exchange House would be programmed according to the refugee population’s traditions, and allow existing immigrants to invite community members to remain in Akron, providing a place for the non-immigrant community to stay and engage with its new population. Once complete, the project will provide a space that creates invitations for additional immigrants to temporarily reside in
the North Hill neighborhood, transfer skills, and bridge barriers between communities.
Working closely with the Knight Foundation, the International Institute, and the Bhutanese Community Association of Akron, the Better Block team began cataloging potential foreclosed homes and meeting with city officials to begin the process of gaining access to a proposed site. An area architect, whose family were refugees, is working with the team to help with the renovation and revitalization of the home.
Thanks to Innate Ecology, Inc. for providing the following detailed report on their 2014 Better Block project in Geelong, Victoria, Australia. You can download their full report here.
The Geelong North Better Block was held in Labuan Square, 10am – 3pm Saturday March 15, 2014. The project engaged residents, community groups and business across Geelong to discuss change within the community and local urban areas over a seven week period.
The Better Block brought together community groups and residents to create an event by the community, for the community with activities to suit a range of ages and interests in an urban area in need of greater interaction and activation.
The day included many free activities such as business advice for emerging business to workshops on edible gardening, beekeeping and backyard chooks. The Labuan Art Space was a popular feature with numerous art activities including the making of two lantern types for the Mountain to Mouth walk (M~M2014) to be held locally in May.
From toddler, children’s and teenager’s activities to devonshire teas, craft stalls and live acoustic music the local community were able to access something for all ages. With a focus on health the local food swap, walking and cycling maps, free bike maintenance, and local fresh food and BBQ corn were a great success.
On the day, local councillor, Kylie Fisher was on hand to talk to locals and The Pulse local television film crew took footage of the event and conducted interviews with particpants for a future Channel 31 TV segment on local activities in Geelong.
The day was the culmination of a series of community engagement workshops and conversations, with support from nine community groups, twelve local businesses, two schools, five local groups and five council departments. With more than an estimated three hundred and twenty (320) participants on the day and eighty (80) volunteers creating the event the day was deemed a great success.
Volunteers commented on the fantastic community feeling on the day, how excited many of the children were to see so much happening in the local shopping area and the value of having free workshops and a local craft market available in the square.
Geelong North Better Block
The Geelong North Better Block project was initiated by Innate Ecology after discussions with Two & Five Inc. on how to reactivate the open space at Labuan Square, Norlane, attract new business to the vacant shops and and engage with local residents, using the Better Block model.
Events organised by Innate Ecology in 2013 with the Better Block co-founders included public lectures and workshops aimed at engaging and empowering local community to create a one day activation in their urban environment. This culminated in the Geelong Better Block, June 2013 strongly supported by Future Proofing Geelong and the City of Greater Geelong.
_To engage local community in discussion on what their shopping area needs
_To facilitate local groups & residents in creating their own event
_To support emerging craftmakers, musicians and business
_To promote fresh and healthy food
_To promote healthy lifestyles, walking and cycling
_To empower residents to create positive change
_To stimulate the Norlane and Geelong North community
The project is a Sustainable Living Festival Geelong 2014 event, coinciding with national and regional marketing of SLF2014.
Prior to the event promotion ocurred across community radio, local and regional newspapers, community and neighbourhood centres, schools, cycling groups, Sustainable Living Festival 2014 media & events, City of Greater Geelong marketing, Geelong Sustainability Group events & marketing, Innate Ecology marketing and via social media including Facebook & Twitter.
On the day event promotion occurred across community radio, Innate Ecology marketing and via social media including facebook & twitter.
Cr Kylie Fisher attended the day, Mayor Darryn Lyons, Cr Andy Richards and MP declined to attend. Mayor Darryn Lyons retweeted on the event. Channel 31 The Pulse TV filmed the event and interviews for later use on local televsion.
Outcome: The promotion of the event to the Geelong region, creating awareness of community led events in Geelong North and attracting visitors.
The process covered a five month period from late October 2013 through to late March 2014.
Project proposal and initial funding agreement occurred in October and November 2013 with funding applications continuing throughout December and January 2014.
Early consultation with key stakeholders in the Geelong North area and key Geelong support groups ocurred in November and December 2013. Local Publicity in Geelong North local publication, ‘Northerly Aspects’ January issue provided information to residents on the event and the two scheduled community engagement workshops conducted locally. Community Engagement Workshops were held in January and February to define what was missing from the local shopping areas and what activities and support residents would like to see in their neighbourhood. Workshops were attended by twenty people and held at Urban Seed, Norlane with a meal provided at the end of the workshop. At the conclusion of the workshops a group of local residents formed a GNBB event team. GNBB event team met in February and March 2014 with inspiration via social media on the Geelong Better Block facebook page and twitter.
Local Council Coordination and event approval was provided by Innate Ecology and CoGG. Innate Ecology coordinated event plans, day schedules and volunteer listing, while CoGG coordinator liaised with council for event approvals, permits, insurance and with other departments.
Volunteers at the event
Eighty one participants (81)
Estimated number of visitors at the event
Three hundred and twenty (320)
Nine Local Community Groups/Social Enterprises
Two & Five Inc. (Labuan Square); Cloverdale Community Centre: Rosewall Neighbourhood Centre; Diversitat; The Pulse 94.7FM Community Radio; Geelong West Neighbourhood House; Playgroup Geelong; Urban Seed; Northern Geelong Rental Housing Co-operative Ltd
Five Local Groups
Cycling Geelong; Cloverdale chat group for Indigenous plants; M~M 2014 Area Representatives; Bellarine Ukulele flash mob; Not the Wolf (band)
Eight Local Businesses at Labuan Square Open at the Event
Pharmacy, Post Office, Supermarket, Bottle’O, Two and Five, Envy Icecreamery, Gary’s Collectables and Men’s Jewellery, SMS Hairdressing
Twelve Geelong Businesses
Gary’s Collectables and Men’s Jewellery & owner Shop 9 (Labuan Square); Envy Icecreamery (Labuan Square); Shop 5 Owner (Vacant Shop – Labuan Square); Shop 13 Owners (Vacant Shop – Labuan Square); De Grandi Cycling and Sport; Urban Planters; The Chicken Feeder; Hobo Country Bakers Coffee Van; Poppy & Clover; Vintage Mama; The Leather Man, Innate Ecology;
Geelong Technical Education Centre, East Geelong
Five City of Greater Geelong Departments
COGG Future Proofing Geelong (funding contribution); CoGG Community Development (Liaison with council); COGG Enterprise Geelong (Business Hub); COGG Events Department (event approval); and COGG Youth Development (Youth Can Van)
Meetings held with Cr Kylie Fisher, Sam Smith, FPG, Cathy Walker CoGG, Northern Bay Technical College Principal and Trade Coordinator, GTEC Trade Teacher.
Communication with Cloverdale Community Centre, Norlane Neighbourhood Centre, Rosewall Neighbourhood Centre, Diversitat, Wathaurong Community, Geelong Mens Shed, Queenscliff Mens Shed, Victoria Police
Councilors /Politicians invited to the event:
Mayor Darryn Lyons (not available) (retweeted event tweets across two accounts on the day)
The Hon Richard Marles MP, Shadow Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, Member for Corio (not available)
Funding the Project
Early support for the community based project was sought from Future Proofing Geelong as part of the Sustainable Living Festival 2014 Geelong funding, Cr Kylie Fisher, Corio Ward and Community Development personnel for Corio, Cathy Walker in October & November 2013.
Financial support was proposed for a five month period of coordination at a reduced cost of $8000 by Innate Ecology. Future Proofing Geelong committed $3000, with a further committment to assist with an application to council for the remaining funds. In addition City of Greater Geelong personnel were committed as support for the internal event coordination.
Due to changes with the council community funding process in late 2013, the remaining funding was difficult to obtain. The final outcome resulted in the City of Greater Geelong COGG funding non-profit Two and Five Inc. $1950 for event costs and coordination.
The remaining $3050 was unfunded. This became an additional probono contribution to the community project by Innate Ecology totalling $9795. While Innate Ecology supports community engagement and events this level of contribution by a small emerging business is unsustainable. Funding will need to be secured prior to project commencement in future.
1. Event Co-ordination October 2013 to March 2014 by Including: Meetings, Community Engagement Workshops, Traders Coordination, Graphic Design, Marketing, Event Day, Event Report valued at: $14,580
2. Expenses (excluding travel costs) – $165
Total Innate Ecology valued at: $14,745
Community Volunteer Time
1. Volunteer participation at workshops and meetings: $2,100
2. Community event team: $3,375
3. Three vacant retail shops on day and storage: $1,500
4. Gardening workshops: $800
5. Musicians: $400
6. Volunteers on the day: $12,300
Total community volunteer time valued at: $20,475
1. GTEC street furniture and bicycle rack hire estimated value: $300
2. De Grandi bicycle repair kits valued at: $50
3. Marketing value estimated at: $10,000
Total other: $15,350
Total project estimated value (excl. council time and input): $45,570
Funding allocated from CoGG and Future Proofing Geelong
1. CoGG FPG Contribution to event coordination: $3,000
2. CoGG contribution to event contribution to Two & Five Inc: $1,950
The value of empowering community to create positive change in their own neighbourhood!
About Innate Ecology
We contribute to the evolution of healthy, livable communities, towns and cities based on equality, diversity, regional foods and services.
Our work encompasses innovative strategy, design and research for the development of urban ecologies and settlements.
Suzette Jackson, Director | email@example.com
This is re-posted from sportsbackers.org. Read the original post here.
For two days in June of last year, we built a better block in Church Hill North. We facilitated dozens of “pop-up” shops in taking up residency along North 25th Street, including inside several vacant storefronts. We added bike lanes and new crosswalks for the weekend using duct tape and other temporary materials, saw the rise of a pocket park on an undeveloped piece of land, turned a concrete slab into a stage for an afternoon of soulful music, painted buildings, painted murals, and doled our thousands of dollars donated by Capital One for façade improvements to the existing businesses.
In case you missed it, you can watch a short documentary about the Better Block Project here:
The project took months of planning and forming partnerships with Team Better Block, the City of Richmond, Bon Secours, Capital One, Davita Dialysis, Storefront for Community Design, Groundwork RVA, Partnership for Smarter Growth and others. And finally, on June 13 and 14 of 2014, the East End community came together for a weekend of temporary transformation of two blocks of North 25th Street into a more walkable, bikeable, vibrant and economically healthy corridor.
But what has changed since then? Did we help create any lasting improvements? I went back to the intersection of N 25th St and Venable St this week to find out.
While it wasn’t my first time back all year – I’ve been back many times since then – I looked hard for what I could interpret as permanent positive change. At first glance, the street looked almost the same. But as I walked the corridor and peered into windows, I began to see the subtle and not-so-subtle changes that told me it was all worth it.
At the northern end of the Better Block project site, big changes are happening on the street with the addition of a large roundabout at N 25th St and Nine Mile Road. Construction is currently underway, and while this is not a direct result of the Better Block Project, it does demonstrate the City of Richmond’s ongoing commitment to make the East End a better place. Making my way south, I was happy to see Ed Trask’s mural that was painted during Better Block still in pristine condition on the side of a building, and that the business in that building had a new, secure front door paid for by Capital One’s contribution to façade improvements.
Our home base for the Better Block Project was located at 1105/1107 N 25th St. While it was originally envisioned to house a coffee shop, it now has a tax office as new tenants. But previously, the space was vacant and uninhabitable due to major repairs that needed to be made, and many of them were made as a direct result of Better Block.
The building that sticks in my mind the most from Better Block is 1008 N 25th St. Once a bright blue and white exterior, a team of volunteers repainted the entire two-story building over the course of a week to match the color pallet of the historic district. Nothing was in there before Better Block, so the property owner agreed to host a pop-up clothing shop for the weekend. Today, it’s clear that a new retail store is about to open in the remodeled space – there’s a new door and windows, fresh carpet and paint on the interior, and retail merchandise is starting to fill the shelves.
The grassy area next door to 1008 – which was transformed into a pocket park for Better Block – has become a priority project of Better Block partner organization Groundwork RVA, which is engaging Armstrong High School students in the planning and design of what will hopefully become a permanent park and asset to the community. Currently, it is still privately owned but appears to be maintained regularly.
At the southern end of the Better Block Project site, a once vacant building is now inhabited with a thriving business. 1000 N 25th St, one of the city’s first gas stations and later converted into a bologna sandwich take-out spot had been vacant for years. During Better Block, a woman sold home-made cosmetics out of the uniquely shaped triangle building. But today, a new place to eat has taken residency, selling fried fish. Appropriately named, “Jus’ Fish”, the sign hanging from the building makes sure you fully understand: “All we do is fish.” So don’t go there looking for fried chicken! When Jus’ Fish opened a few months ago, the owner of the building emailed me to say:
“Just wanted to thank you for your hard work and efforts toward revitalization of my community. Thanks to that great weekend last year, I have secured a tenant and a new restaurant is open… Thank you again for such an eye-opening event!”
The last and most subtle – but arguably the most important – thing I observed was a sign hanging in the window of the N 25th St Market, a corner store that sells junk food, cigarettes, and alcohol (among other things). The sign read: “Fresh Local Produce”. Thanks to Tricycle Gardens, Church Hill North residents now have the option to buy healthy food in what is otherwise a significant food desert.
Between the City of Richmond, Bon Secours, and a community of non-profits and residents who are fully invested in Church Hill North as a place to live and work, great things are taking shape in the East End. For example, four blocks away, residents are organizing in support of the area’s first “neighborhood byway” on N 29th St, which would offer a comfortable place for people of all ages and abilities to walk and bike for transportation, and would be a central connector to key destinations in Church Hill.
That stretch of N 25th St on Church Hill still has a ways to go. But things are certainly changing for the better, and there is a whole community up there who still cares a lot about building a better block.
We’ve been working on a book outlining lessons learned from Better Block projects occurring around the world, and as a part of the effort we’ve begun assembling recipes for interventions that are often implemented. One of the most notable has been the inclusion of temporary green bike lanes, which we stumbled across with help from the Baton Rouge Better Block team, and later applied with enhanced detailing in the Akron Better Block project sponsored by the Knight Foundation. Check out how we did it below, and pass it on to others (high res PDF here):
Through a partnership with the Knight Foundation, Akron, Ohio’s first Better Block project was realized the weekend of May 15th-17th and showed how the community could come together to transform a blighted block into a vibrant neighborhood destination. By introducing buffered bike lanes, enhancing pedestrian infrastructure, and creating two public plazas, the Better Block proved that a street that once existed only for cars could be scaled down to make way for bikes, people, and programming.
Why North Hill?
Akron Better Block took place in the North Hill neighborhood on N Main Street, a wide, intimidating four-lane thoroughfare that was created to quickly move cars from Downtown to the suburbs. The expansion of Main Street is a “solution” too often used in cities around the U.S. to allow for increased capacity on the road and to relieve congestion. Instead, the added lanes left the road under-trafficked, allowing
cars to blitz through the neighborhood at high speeds.
As a result, businesses have suffered and pedestrians fear being on foot. While the street is home to a number of charming historic buildings, many are vacant, neglected, and are beginning to be torn down, leaving empty lots in their place. These gaps in the street discourage pedestrian activity and make it difficult for small businesses to prosper.
The Better Block was introduced in Akron as part of an ongoing effort to increas
walkability in the City. Road reductions in the Highland Square neighborhood set precedence for the project, and the Akron Metropolitan Area Transportation Study (AMATS) has been creating a comprehensive road diet plan to present to the City.
To spur these ongoing improvements, under support from the Knight Foundation and with the help of a dedicated group of Akron community leaders, Better Block worked to reduce the scale of the street to allow for human activity, and encouraged local entrepreneurs to test out their business ideas in the vacancies for the weekend. The Akron Better Block team filled the gaps made by parking lots and demolished buildings by creating pedestrian plazas and fields for playing sports, yoga, and ping pong. For one weekend at least, N Main Street realized its potential as a thriving, economically viable block.
Identifying the location
In Akron, as with any City Better Block works in, we evaluated the community’s assets and redevelopment potential before choosing a block. Blocks that house pre-war buildings with good pedestrian form but lack a complete street are preferred. These blocks are typically found at former streetcar intersections, which was the case with N Main Street in Akron. We seek out these former streetcar neighborhoods because they were constructed with the pedestrian in mind, and traditionally follow a human-scale, classic Main Street model. When surveying location in Akron, we paid attention to five different factors for a neighborhood with redevelopment potential:
Edges that define space. Walkable districts always contain buildings that edge the sidewalk, with storefronts facing the street to create a welcoming atmosphere and gather pedestrians into one space. N Main Street, being along an old streetcar line, still maintained many of its traditional pre-war buildings that lined the street. However, a number of the historic buildings had also been torn down to make way for parking lots and to eliminate eyesores on the street, giving the Better Block team plenty of “gaps” to fill in order to exemplify how a pedestrian-friendly district should flow.
Leasable buildings. In order to encourage development, there need to be some vacancies on the street to instigate change and to incubate entrepreneurs during the Better Block weekend. N Main Street had a number of leasable spaces where we placed pop-up shops, giving them a low-risk way to test their businesses.
Potential for multi-modal infrastructure. N Main Street had been expanded to accommodate additional traffic, making it easy to pinch it back to down to one lane in each direction to allow for wider sidewalks and dedicated bike lanes.
Proximity to a neighborhood. As with most streetcar intersections, N Main Street at Cuyahoga Falls is located within a grid of residential homes, making it easy for residents nearby to walk to the commercial corridor and support their local businesses.
Interest from local partners. No matter how great the location, a project is only as good as the community it’s within. Luckily for the Akron project, we were privileged to work with an extremely engaged and active community of leaders and volunteers that were eager to get involved in any way they could. From sharing ideas to lending tools, creating pop-ups, organizing outdoor markets, and painting pallet furniture, the project suffered from no lack of community involvement.
After choosing the location, we partnered with a number of organizations on the ground in Akron to conduct a series of community walks. These walks are designed to incorporate interested community members and hear what they’d like to see in their neighborhood.
From our Akron walks, we gathered that the perception of safety was the biggest factor preventing pedestrians from visiting the block. Additional lighting, filling vacancies, and putting eyes on the street can increase the perception of safety, so we decided to string lights in the plaza, place pop-up businesses in the vacancies, and build a number of outdoor seating areas for pedestrians to gather and feel welcome. Attendees also repeatedly mentioned that high traffic speeds prevented them from feeling safe crossing the street, so the team narrowed down the street to one lane in either direction, moved the parallel parking spaces to the outer edge of the bike lanes, and installed crosswalks to slow traffic and begin to train drivers to interact with pedestrians and bikes on the street. The data we gathered before and after the event showed that average car speeds decreased by 15 mph during the event.
After months of planning, the Akron team hit the ground running to transform the block in under a week. In the days leading up to the Better Block, we conducted a series of workshops with volunteers from the community to help us expedite the process and have the community take ownership of the project. The workshops conducted included Plaza Preparation & Build, where volunteers built a bocce court, created and strung bunting over the street and painted pedestrian areas; Street Repair, during which volunteers cut crosswalks from recycled materials and striped bike lanes; Parklet & Pallet Furniture Building, where volunteers constructed and painted street seating and parklets out of old pallets; and Measurement Workshops, allowing community members to gather data on elements of walkability and safety before and during the event.
Building the Block
These workshops, combined with invaluable community partnerships with Tina and John Ughrin, International Institute, Keep Akron Beautiful, AMATS, Countryside Conservancy, 427 Design, ECDI, and countless others, we introduced five major improvements to the block: buffered bike lanes, 2 pedestrian plazas, an activity field, an open air market, and 6 pop-up businesses.
Unlike many of our past projects, where the bike lanes were painted by volunteers using rollers and tape, the City of Akron came on board and enlisted Public Works to help us paint the lanes. While the paint was still temporary and the borders were marked with white duct tape, the lanes could have easily been mistaken for the permanent green lanes found in major cities across the country. By including a buffer and moving street parking to the outer edge of the bike lane, we created a space where cyclists can enjoy the street without the stress of traffic. The addition of the lanes, as well as the widened sidewalks, pinched the portion of the street reserved for cars down to one lane in either direction, reducing speed and making the street safer not only for cyclists, but pedestrians and drivers as well.
The team also added areas for people to gather around the street, including an outdoor beer garden, seating areas outside of restaurants, a parklet and benches along the sidewalks. Shade and seating, combined with food and drink options, invite people to linger and get to know one another in an otherwise unfriendly, car-centric atmosphere.
The pedestrian plazas included one on the East side of the street that housed a bocce court and seating area, and a Western plaza that staged the outdoor market as well as an art installation and landscaped garden inspired by timeless plaza layouts found throughout the world. Countless volunteers came out in the days before the project to plant flowers, build furniture, shovel crushed limestone into the bocce court, and create bunting to be strung across the street. The Akron chapter of the League of Creative Interventionists constructed an art piece for the plaza, and International
Institute and Asia, Inc. enlisted dozens of talented performers to showcase their music, dance, and storytelling on stages throughout the weekend.
Like all of our projects, Better Block sources its materials locally and works to use borrowed tools and equipment to save on costs and to engage the community in the build process. Temporary donations were used to landscape the street, recycled billboard vinyl became bunting, chair covers, and mural backdrops, and old rubber tires were turned into art.
The Pop-Up Shops
Starting a brick-and-mortar business can be intimidating to a first-time entrepreneur, making Better Block the perfect platform for local makers to test out their concepts. By eliminating many of the barriers associated with starting a business, six different pop-ups were able to open for the weekend, including Three Sisters Momo, Stray Dog Diner, Summit Cycling Center, a local art gallery, International Welcome Center, and Neighbor’s Apparel.
As an international district, North Hill is home to hundreds of refugees from Bhutan, Nepal, Burma and the Middle East, making it a community rich in culture and diversity. The shops and activities throughout the weekend reflected the multi-cultural flair of the neighborhood; Three sisters served traditional Nepali dumplings by employing Bhutanese refugees; Neighbor’s Apparel employs local refugees to create its unique clothing and accessories; the art gallery showcased work made by local refugee youth; and the International Welcome Center served to educate attendees about the global identity of the neighborhood and provide resources to immigrants in the community. In addition, businesses that already existed around the block, such as a family-owned grocery store and Nepali Kitchen, benefited from the increased pedestrian activity in the area and saw a boom in sales over the weekend.
By engaging the refugee community in Akron and giving them the resources they need to start businesses and invest in their community, the neighborhood has the potential to become a self-sustaining, vibrant economic center that thrives from its own residents.
During the event, pedestrian activity and perception of safety drastically improved. Average vehicle speeds decreased from 29 mph to 13 mph, and we saw an exponential increase in the amount of bikes, families and neighbors on the street.
The pop-up businesses made record sales during the weekend, and a few of the them are already in negotiations with property owners about making their locations permanent, or at least continuing to conduct business temporarily while the space is vacant. The owners of the parking lot that housed the outdoor market and plaza garden for the weekend was disappointed to see it go and is interested in making the plaza a permanent addition to the block.
As far as the street improvements are concerned, plans are now in the works to begin taking concepts developed for the Better Block and making them permanent. AMATS is including the results of the better block project in their road diet recommendations to the City of Akron.
Many thanks to all of the community members, property owners, city staff, and volunteers for making this an incredibly successful event.
In Better Block projects, the areas we look to revitalize are often former streetcar stops, which are neighborhood Main Streets that conform to Dave Sucher’s “three rules for a walkable neighborhood”. The important form of the street, buildings built to the sidewalk without setbacks for parking, are often disrupted over time due to structures being demolished creating “gaps in the teeth.” These gaps are often converted to parking lots which break up the walkability of the block but are deemed crucial to the business which no longer has the luxury of heavy foot traffic the streetcar once provided. This parking problem solves one issue, but creates another.
While developing concept plans to activate the historic wall, the gaps are where we find the energy of the street rapidly decline. Other common issues are half walls, or places where one side of the street is intact and the other side has been leveled. The symbiosis of the two walls is important to create a street that feels alive and hugs the public space correctly. Fortunately, temporary ways to re-engage these gaps is to use things like food trucks, or biergartens which begin re-stitching the street. Unfortunately, many people don’t see the necessity for having these spaces tightly interconnected and activating each other in a way that allows the parts to help the sum. Where we see this most commonly working correctly is in the suburban mall, a place that has re-appropriated many of the successful concepts of a Main Street. In fact, to simplify the analysis of what works and what doesn’t work in a Better Block, we’ll often ask “Would it work in a mall?”. Specifically, taking the example of a half-wall street, we could ask the question, “Would a mall with a hallway that one side is empty and the other side is full work well?”. It might work partially, but it wouldn’t be nearly as successful as both parts together. Also, looking at several of the new mixed-use developments occurring where the retail on the bottom floor is homogenized and all of the store fronts have little detail and appear to be one similar store front after another, would that same aesthetic be appealing in a mall? This is often what shopping strips employ, and those with the least detail and differentiation between facades lack character and are often described as feeling artificial.
When developing plazas or similar commons, we look at areas like food courts for examples. In a mall, these areas are open spaces edged with food retailers that all manage the public space. To be successful, we’ll look at bringing in tables, chairs, then lining the edges of the square with multiple food options (where it be food trucks, trailers, or tents). An area we often have to mitigate with vendors is the fear of losing business due to perceived conflicts of competition. What is important is for those vendors to note that what makes a district feel complete is having multiple options that create a dense feeling of mixes that all engage the space and bring as much foot traffic to the “commons” as possible. The series of options that are presented create spaces that people want to gather around and the “rising tide raises all ships” phenomenon can be seen.
If using the mall reference as an example, imagine a large food court with one food vendor. It might receive all of the foot traffic, but it will also make the space feel isolated and empty.
Realizing the complex symbiosis of the businesses with the public space is important to making a place feel vibrant and inviting. Although many suburban malls are in decline, the principles behind their walkability, mix of retail and food, public space engaging with private space, and facade detail can all be referenced in Better Blocks. Understanding the clustering of storefronts and noting how even small gaps can dramatically reduce the success for the relationship businesses have to the street is crucial and can make or break projects.
This article was originally published in the March 2015 issue of the Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal. Read the full issue here.
As part of an ongoing ITE Journal series on Interim Design and Tactical Urbanism, this article explores three case studies with an emphasis on the partnerships and collaborations that can be developed through a new approach to civic engagement.
By Andrew Howard, AICP and Susan McLaughlin, AICP LEED AP
How many of us as transportation engineers and planners have started a complete street or public space project with a contentious public meeting? When is the last time you actually enjoyed the process and felt that productive input was provided and recognized in the final product?
Until the early 1970s, United States federal, state, and municipal agencies planned roadway construction with little input from the communities affected by the work. Later, emphasis was placed on trying to inform as many people as possible about public improvements with notices and public hearings. Recently, with the Internet making “experts” out of everyone, people have desired even more involvement, and designers have responded with interactive charrettes that allow participants to draw on maps and put stickers on priority elements to gauge community desires.
Planners and engineers have even produced fancy interactive websites to gather further comments, but public engagement still has been seen as a stumbling block. Recently at a National Association of City and Traffic Officials (NACTO) meeting, transportation officials from around the country conducted a roundtable on the barriers to urban street design. With all the funding shortages and battles over outdated design standards, community consensus still reigns as the number one barrier to progress on complete streets and public space design.
Why is this? Inherently most people are skeptical of change. You have been at that public meeting where one naysayer incites fear into the hearts of all who have gathered by shouting this will be “carmageddon!” Even though the traffic modeling says it will not turn out that way and the renderings look really pretty, sometimes these emotional voices win out, and what the designers are left with is a watered-down plan that com- promises best practices with the fears of the constituents. That is not to say that com- munity input isn’t valuable—but it should always be rooted in fact or experience. There must be a better way!
A few years ago, a group of friends, of which author Andrew Howard was a part, worked over a weekend to spiff up a blighted block of commercial buildings in the Oak Cliff neighborhood of Dallas, TX, USA using an alternative approach. This first “Better Block” was an experiment to lure people out of their living rooms and into public life so that they would engage in a conversation about the kind of community they wanted to live in. The group of friends—regular people representing the perfect cross section of the city’s populace—took an auto-dominated street and added the first bicycle lanes in Dallas, café seating, and narrowed the street so it was safe for all. A patent lawyer in the group identified the city land use codes that were holding back public life from blooming, like restrictions of café seating, shade awnings, flowers in the right of way, and issues such as causing crowds on the sidewalk. Andrew, an urban planner, took up the city’s out- dated street design standards that reinforced automobile priority and demonstrated how complete streets could be integrated. The group’s solution was to approach the problem with fresh eyes and to expose the rules for exactly what they were. Together over a weekend, we pinned copies of the ordinances on walls and invited our city leaders and staff for a discussion. The result was dramatic. City officials took notice and started the long process of changing those ordinances that limit true public engagement. One million dollars in the city budget was redirected toward making the weekend improvements permanent. Even more amazing is what the short project has spurred in the individuals that took part in it.
The patent lawyer that pasted the ordinances on the walls around the Better Block is now a city councilmember. Another member from the group is on the board of the local economic development committee, and two others joined together to start a real business after their pop-up shop during the weekend was so loved. Countless others that participated or just saw the event are now civic champions and are taking on city bettering projects in many fields.
As this example shows, the concept of urban planning is not stale. It is not a process run by city staff and consultants. It is a culture. In extreme cases, practicing urban planning in this way may lead to quitting your job to pursue civic engagement full time, as was the case for Andrew, who went on to co-found the social-enterprise consulting firm Team Better Block as a result of his experience. At the very least, this concept will make your job as a transportation engineer and/or planner designer easier because the community will be directly showing you what they desire from the city, helping you translate that into a permanent solution.
This kind of conversation about the future of the city cannot take place in City Hall or a library meeting room. It must take place in the streets, and, as the inaugural Better Block showed, those streets must be for people. For too many places in America there is no such venue, and many places actually make having such a conversation impossible. That is why the challenge lies with us as transportation professionals and enthusiasts to pop one up and build a Better Block that kick starts the conversation of public life.
Cities across the country are inviting these spaces into the everyday fabric of neighborhoods to disrupt the status quo and highlight what needs improvement. These living labo- ratories are experimenting with what people want in the city and thus keep a constant conversation going about the future. In cities that have invited disruption, we are seeing a growing engaged citizenry that understands what good design is and why it matters, and will advocate for it forcefully.
Better Block is part of an emerging and somewhat disruptive movement in urban and transportation planning. Like any new movement, it is going by multiple names. Broadly it has been coined tactical urbanism by urban planner Mike Lydon, who offers this definition: Tactical Urbanism is a city, organizational, and/or citizen-led approach to neighborhood building using short-term, low-cost, and scalable interventions intended to catalyze long-term change.
Parallel to the grassroots efforts, professionals have begun to adopt the ideals of tactical urbanism. The National Association of City and Traffic Officials (NACTO) implemented a set of Interim Design Strategies defined in the following: With limited funding streams, complex approval and regulatory processes, and lengthy construction timetables, cities are often challenged to deliver the results that communities demand as quickly as they would like. Interim design strategies are a set of tools and tactics that cities can use to improve their roadways and public spaces in the near-term.
By either definition, what this means for engineers and planners is a fresh approach to the project delivery process. Over the past five years these approaches to building a culture for street and public space changes have been applied in three distinct fashions:
1. Direct Citizen Action (Dallas, TX, USA)
One of the amazing freedoms in America is our right to assemble. Starting with the first Better Block in Dallas up to the most recent one in Tampa, FL, USA, an estimated 80 cities across the United States have used local block party permits to demonstrate street improvements, test public space improve- ments, and stretch the zoning and building codes to prove that cities can be better today. By using the standard approval and review process found in all local block party permits, citizens do not tax already-burdened city employees with extra work. Yet, it still seems daring and fun to change the street and try out ideas that would never make it off the planning or design table. This approach is often used to raise awareness of local issues that are stalemated and garner momentum for change. An example is the first Better Block project in Dallas, Texas.
2. Part of a Planning Process (Norfolk, VA, USA)
In cities that have over-planned, people often have “rendering fatigue” and “analysis paralysis.” Jason Roberts, who co-founded Team Better Block with Andrew, explained that their firm was founded in response to this “rendering fatigue,” in cases where com- munity enthusiasm has waned during a long planning process. In these situations the public is often only represented by the “frequent fliers”—the folks that are always at the public meetings. Municipalities in need have looked toward Better Block type projects with the aim of bringing in a younger more diverse group of constituents to the planning process. The approach also frees designers and planners to think about short-term, low- cost actions rather than long-term, high-cost ideas that could change dramatically given local market dynamics.
In April 2013, the City of Norfolk, VA, USA hosted the Dallas-based consultants Team Better Block to organize a“rapid place-making” event on Granby Street in the city’s proposed downtown Arts District, the first of four planned projects in the city. The efforts used temporary collaborative place-making to coalesce the community and change citizens’ and City officials’ sense of “what’s possible.” During the weekend-long event, residents created temporary spaces, piloted small busi- nesses, and forged important connections. The weekend also led to the city’s adoption of permanent zoning changes. In the year and a half since this Better Block project, more than 2 million dollars in land transactions and improvements have occurred, a complete street plan has been completed, five new businesses have launched, and a public space has been completed.
Jason Roberts says,“We [founded] Better Block as a 30 day vision, not a five year vision.” He believes that good place-making aims to create “a highly connected community or tribe.” The City of Norfolk sought out Team Better Block because past planning efforts had resulted in the same crowd of naysayers attending public meetings, and they really wanted young people involved in city building. Assistant City Manager Ron Williams made the decision to try a new approach.
The Better Block approach began with a pre- liminary site walk with community members. The second project walk drew approximately 50 people, followed by a series of community meetings with the City and a self-selecting core group leading up to the implementation event. The April Better Block event focused on transforming downtown’s Granby Street into the commercial spine of a new Arts District. The weekend of implementation drew more than 130 volunteers, including, parents, artists, DIYers, architects, cycle advocates, and Norfolkians from all walks of life who joined together to create three pop-up shops, a Dutch bicycle intersection, a giant public plaza, 80 feet of parklets, and count- less amazing pieces of art.
Better Block efforts encourage community members to physically make things and place them in their shared environment. A low budget for interventions is a hallmark of Better Block projects, and according to its founders, one of its major strengths. Tools, materials, and street furniture are borrowed, donated, or improvised. This borrowing builds ownership and trust within the community. Many times we want to skip this part of the process and buy things or hire people to do it, but if you do authenticity is lacking. In-kind donations in the form of art, landscaping, and construc- tion materials are solicited from residents, local businesses, and organizations. What little actual funding is required, including fees for the consultants, usually comes from a mix of sources. In Norfolk the effort was largely City- funded, although most recently the National Association of Realtors, John and James L. Knight Foundation, and People for Bikes have been major sponsors.
The Better Block model also tests small businesses on a temporary basis—in Norfolk, these pop up businesses ranged from a maker space to a beer garden. This strategy gives would-be entrepreneurs a low-commitment way to test business models while providing the greater community with a vision of what the block would be like with commercial activity. Team Better Block calls it speed dating for entrepreneurs, investors, and the city, to get to know each other, try things out, and— hopefully—fall in love with it.
After the conclusion of the weekend, Team Better Block provided the client with a report including metrics and an implementation guide for moving forward. Following the Granby Street event, resistance to land use and zoning changes subsided and the City Council unanimously approved additional uses that would encourage a viable Arts District, includ- ing art studios, breweries, flea markets, farmers markets, used merchandise stores, and com- mercial recreation centers. Frank Duke, Norfolk City Planner, says, “The first Better Block awak- ened the City officials and previously hesitant neighborhoods on the market potential for an Arts District in this downtown area.”Within several weeks food trucks were authorized, and design consultants working with the City developed a streetscape plan and began feasibility studies to examine narrowing some driving lanes to provide more on-street parking and wider sidewalks. The event also resulted in a $1.1 million sale of a long-listed building in the district as well as the opening of five new businesses that had been piloted during the event. On the softer side, lasting friendships and open lines of communication were forged. Six months after the event, small business owners marveled at the changes in the area, such as seeing a runner jogging alone on the street past dark, which as one merchant stated, “you never would have seen” several months ago. Norfolk has now hosted two additional Better Block projects in other budding districts with similar results.
3. Part of a Design Process (Seattle, WA, USA)
Road diets, street closures, new public spaces—new anything—is often questioned in established areas. Engineers and planners spend countless hours modeling, debating, and second guessing community assumptions about how improvements will be perceived and used. In many cases, it makes a lot of sense to just try it out! This allows for designs to be tested and for people to interact with the space and overcome fears of change. Engineers have cited design flaws during these brief tests and planners learned how a community would use the space. The following case study examines one such project.
The City of Seattle, WA, USA hosted its first Street Scrabble Tournament in August 2014, in partnership with Fehr & Peers, Team Better Block, and Framework design firm. This fun and engaging event offered a unique opportunity to raise awareness about a strategic public space plan that was under development: the First Hill Public Realm Action Plan. The Action Plan’s objective is to iden- tify short-term solutions to a long-term park deficiency in the First Hill neighborhood. This downtown-adjacent neighborhood has a growing population with more than 400 new residential units in the last decade and is also home to three major medical campuses; in fact, First Hill has the second highest job density in downtown Seattle, with nearly 85 thousand jobs per square mile! As one of the few neighborhoods zoned for high-rise residential buildings, available land comes at a premium and has made open space acquisition extremely challenging.
The Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT), Seattle Parks and Recreation, and Seattle Department of Planning and Development have taken an innovative approach to delivering new public space that would meet national and local parks criteria. One of these strategies is to put under-utilized right of way to a better public use by reallocating street space to park space. The Street Scrabble Tour- nament temporarily closed an intersection that was identified in the Action Plan to test the concept through tactical means.
A life-size Street Scrabble Tournament requires large wooden letter tiles (1×1), four 8-foot long wooden letter stands, and a board constructed of duct tape and spray-chalked with the variety of double and triple word scores displayed on the traditional board.
Each of the one hundred letters was fabricated by hand by City staff and volunteers by sanding and painting each individual tile to match the font found on Scrabble boards.
SDOT Traffic Operations helped to design the intersection closure with appropriate safety measures taken to ensure pedestrian safety for the 24-hour closure through edge lines, traffic barriers, and cones. Once the intersection was closed, volunteers helped lay the groundwork for the Tournament to be played the following day. Some of the interim design features, aside from the Scrabble Tournament board and tiles, included landscape planters, table, chairs, tent, bike facility delineation, and Twitter account information for photo sharing. There was design liberty given to volunteers that were armed with spray chalk.
The event was advertised in advance and people interested in playing in the tournament entered their names into a lottery to be randomly chosen the day of the event. There were 2 semi-final rounds to select the final four players and prizes were given to all winning participants.
The Scrabble tournament was extremely successful in engaging people with the space that could be transformed in the future. Social media and surveys from the event indicated overwhelming support for the reallocation of right of way to make a future park in this location and to do more street activation events through interim or tactical design strategies. The community saw it in action instead of just hearing about it in a public meeting, and that made all the difference in the world.
Team Better Block was awarded today a $155,000 grant from the Knight Foundation to pursue a project in Akron, Ohio. The funds will be used to convert excess housing stock in the city into boutique hostels and cultural hubs utilizing the Airbnb platform.
Through multiple visits and conversations with Akron city leaders and residents, we identified the need for increased hotel options near the downtown area. At the same time, the City of Akron, Ohio is faced with population declines, excessive housing stock, and a lowered tax base to maintain existing infrastructure. This problem, combined with the lack of hotels near the city’s core, the opportunity arose to temporarily repurpose existing housing stock as Airbnb hostels or hotels to demonstrate to the community how their homes can be activated and returned to economic viability. By focusing on the North Hill neighborhood, where a Better Block project is currently in development, the growing Bhutanese refugee community (representing 70% of new immigration to the area) will be engaged when developing the concept. This will give the demonstration space a cultural point of reference while providing a shared cultural amenity on the grounds for the neighborhood. The AirBnB concept will operate for 18 months, and provide a detailed prototype that residents can engage with and learn how to convert other homes in the area into shared economic resources.
The Knight Cities Challenge is an annual $5 million call for ideas focusing on one or all of these three key drivers of city success: attracting and retaining talented people, expanding economic opportunity, and creating a culture of civic engagement. They awarded the grant to Team Better Block for meeting these three criteria in an innovative way.
The Better Block team is celebrating the award with a party on March 31st from 5 to 9 p.m. at their new office location: 323 W Jefferson Blvd., #203, Dallas, TX 75208.